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E. H. Butler Library, Buffalo State, The State University of New York

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Citation Help

Citation Styles

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers in Butler Library

The MLA Handbook is published by the Modern Language Association, the authority on MLA documentation style. Widely adopted by universities, colleges, and secondary schools, the MLA Handbook gives step-by-step advice on every aspect of writing research papers, from selecting a topic to submitting the completed paper. 

This is the Modern Language Association's website with writing resources.

Examples from the latest edition of the MLA style from Purdue University.

APA - Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in Butler Library

When editors or teachers ask you to write in APA Style®, they are referring to the editorial style that many of the social and behavioral sciences have adopted to present written material in the field. APA Style was first developed 80 years ago by a group of social scientists who wished to establish sound standards of communication. Description from APA.

A help sheet provided by E. H. Butler Library.

This PowerPoint seminar, based on the sixth edition of the APA manual, was created by Angela L. Patti and Colleen A. Wilkinson, instructors in the Exceptional Education Department.

Homepage of the American Psychological Association's style guide including information on electronic references.

Examples from Purdue University.

ASA - American Sociological Association Style Guide in Butler Library

The ASA Style Guide is the authoritative reference for writing, submitting, editing, and copyediting manuscripts for ASA journals and other publications following ASA's unique format.

Quick Tips for ASA Style
These tips are provided by the American Sociological Association.

CMOS - Chicago Manual of Style in Butler Library

The Chicago Manual of Style, used primarily in literature, history, and the arts, presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. 

The Chicago Manual of Style offers this guide with examples and a link to questions and answers.

These examples are from Purdue University.


Turabian - A manual for Writers of Researach Papers, Theses, and Dissertations in Butler Library

Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is the student version of The Chicago Manual of Style, aimed at high school and college students who are writing papers, theses, and dissertations that are not intended for publication. (The Chicago Manual of Style is aimed at professional scholars and publishers.) The two books are compatible; both are official Chicago style.

More Citation Styles


ACS - The ACS Style Guide in Butler Library

AMA Manual of Style in Butler Library

AP - Associated Press Stylebook in Butler Library

The AP Stylebook is a writing style guide for journalists. It is published and updated annually to reflect changes in writing style and new guidelines.

Updated regularly since its initial publication in 1953, the AP Stylebook is a must-have reference for writers, editors, students and professionals. It provides fundamental guidelines for spelling, language, punctuation, usage and journalistic style. It is the definitive resource for journalists. Description from AP.

Search for information about AP style in this section, "Ask the Editor."

NLM Style Guide - Citing Medicine is available online

  • Updates to the manual are included online

Scientific Style and Format : the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers in Butler Library

Citation Formatting Resources

Purdue OWL

The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Formatting style guides are available for APA, MLA, and Chicago.

Citation Machine

An interactive Web tool to help format citations in APA, MLA, Chicago, and Turabian styles.

Research Management Applications


The new RefWorks increases researcher productivity by simplifying the research experience. RefWorks allows researchers to gather, organize, read, and cite their research materials. It also makes it easy to collaborate with others on joint projects.


Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network. Make your own fully-searchable library in seconds, cite as you write, and read and annotate your PDFs on any device.


Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself.


Note: The Buffalo State College Endnote subscription will be discontinued at the end of the 2018-2019 academic year.

EndNote is a personal citation/bibliography manager software program. EndNote helps researchers organize references in a database, which can be used to format citation and create bibliographies automatically in word processing software.

Download EndNote (Buffalo State students, faculty, & staff)

F1000 Workspace

A suite of tools to help researchers with writing, collaborating, reference management and preparation for publishing academic papers.  It consists of a web-based application, a browser extension, and a powerful plugin for Microsoft Word plus a lightweight desktop app for importing PDFs. The browser extension adds a special button to your browser you can use to save and annotate articles as you browse. The Microsoft Word plugin allows you to easily insert citations, search for new references and even get smart citation recommendations. 

Preparing an Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of sources used in your research with a summary for each cited source. Provided by E. H. Butler Library.

Preparing an Annotated Bibliography (PDF, 107K)


What Is Plagiarism?

Simply put, plagiarism is the submission or presentation of work, in any form, that is not one's own, without acknowledgment of the sources. Plagiarism may occur through incorrect documentation of sources, failure to cite sources altogether, or by paraphrasing improperly. Always provide appropriate citations for all quotations, summaries, paraphrases, or any other work that is borrowed from others.

When you use another person's words or ideas without clearly acknowledging the source of your information and giving proper credit, you are committing plagiarism. You must provide appropriate citations for all quotations, summaries, paraphrases, or any other work that is borrowed from others.

Plagiarism is considered unethical and in some cases illegal. At Buffalo State, plagiarism is considered academic misconduct and is taken very seriously. The library offers style guides to help students give proper credit to the works they are citing. Style guides also ensure that the necessary information is included in a citation to allow others to find the material cited.

Learn More About Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism Tutorials is a web-based service that instructors may use to deter and detect plagiarism. Your instructor may utilize this service for source verification of student papers. If your professor requires your class to submit papers to, and you have questions about submitting your work, please contact your professor, or view the Turnitin Student Instructions. Faculty will find information about Turnitin on the Electronic Learning Office web page, Faculty Resources.

Buffalo State's Policy on Academic Misconduct

All students are expected to display honesty and integrity in completing course requirements and college academic regulations. Academic misconduct refers to plagiarism or cheating on examinations or assignments, and is inconsistent with the aims and goals of Buffalo State. Specifically, students may neither use the work of another individual without proper acknowledgment nor perform work for another individual. Other examples of inappropriate academic conduct include prior acquisition or possession of an examination or submission of false data. As a result of a sustained allegation of academic misconduct, a low or failing grade for part or all of the coursework may be given to the student, at the discretion of the instructor. No penalty for an alleged instance of academic misconduct may be imposed unless the student has been apprised of the allegation, the penalty, and the procedures of due process that are available.

Copyright Education for Students

Get the facts on copyright law, and find multimedia sources for your projects and reports.

Copyright Education for Students (PDF, 3.8MB)

See also: U. S. Copyright Law and Fair-Use Guidelines for Books and Periodicals.

Citation Tips and Tools for Google Docs

Hanging Indent

Using the Format Menu

You can highlight any text you want and follow these instructions to create a hanging indent.You can create a hanging indent using the Google Docs menu.

  1. Go to Format → Align & Indent → Indentation Options.
  2. You should now see a pop up with some indent options, one of which should be a Special with a drop down option for “Hanging.” 

Using the Document Ruler

  1. Select the text you want indented. You can select a single paragraph or multiple paragraphs at a time.

  2. On the ruler, drag the Left Indent (light blue inverted triangle) to the right as far as you want the text to be indented. As you will notice, the First Line Indent marker (light blue rectangle) will come along for the ride, and all your selected text will move to the right.

  3. Drag the First Line Indent marker (light blue rectangle) back to the left margin. It will move independently, and your hanging indent will be created.


Using the Google Docs Add-Ons for Citation Styles

Adding Add-Ons for Google Docs, Sheets, & Slides

  1. On your computer, open a document, spreadsheet, or presentation.

  2. Click Add-ons → Get add-ons.

  3. Point to an add-on to see a short description. To see a full description, click the add-on.

  4. To install the add-on, click Free.

  5. For most add-ons, a message will appear requesting access to data that the add-on needs to work. Read the message, then click Allow.

Citation Add-Ons for Google Docs

  • EasyBib Bibliography Creator
    Free add-on that works with EasyBib citation generator, but only has book, journal, and website option. Good if you are familiar with EasyBib, and more feature offered with the subscriptions.

  • Paperpile
    Free add-on that works with Paperpile service. They have a quick start guides available, and works well for basic citation.

  • F1000
    With the F1000 Google Docs add-on you can easily cite any references saved in F1000Workspace. You'll get smart citation suggestions and be able to search PubMed or the 170,000+ expert recommended articles in F1000Prime without leaving Google Docs. For an overview of our Google Docs add-on click here.

  • Proquest Refworks
    RefWorks for Google Docs lets RefWorks users add in-text and footnote citations to documents, auto-generating your bibliography as you write. More information about the Refworks add-on can be found here.

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